Richard Niebuhr, in Christ and Culture, presents five possible models for the engagement of the church with the surrounding culture. These are:
- Christ against culture – the Anabaptist model
- Christ above culture – the Catholic and Orthodox model
- Christ and culture in paradox – the Lutheran model
- Christ of culture – the liberal Protestant model
- Christ transforming culture – the Reformed model
Each of these models has its own strengths and limitations, and each may be more effective in a certain given context and at a certain given time than in others.